It is known in common parlance as brain surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the surgical treatment of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord & peripheral nervous system.

A pediatric neurosurgeon can treat children of all ages, from newborns to teenagers. For example, some newborns have neurological abnormalities, which are also known as birth defects. In rare cases, children can have strokes. Pediatric neurosurgery involves treating this problem. There are several other problems that a neurosurgeon can treat. These include:

  • Nerve injuries
  • Central nervous system infections
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Neurodegenerative diseases

A pediatric neurosurgeon must undergo rigorous training. First, the individual must complete medical school, according to the American Board of Neurological Surgery. Next, the individual must do a residency that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Finally, the surgeon needs to complete general surgery training. The focus of this training is in general care.


Before a child undergoes pediatric neurosurgery, the child may have imaging studies. This can include computed tomography, or CT scans. A child may also get a magnetic resonance imaging scan, or an MRI.

A major part of diagnosing and evaluating patients in neurology involves the use of imaging studies. This can include computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and angiograms. An angiogram uses X-rays to look at the child’s blood vessels in the heart. Each of these exams may be done before a child undergoes pediatric neurosurgery.

This type of surgery is one of the most recent types of surgeries. The early 1900s is when it originally developed. But now the discipline uses advanced technology. It is considered to be a cutting-edge type of surgery.

The term pediatric neurosurgery covers several disciplines. This can include spine surgery, interventional neuroradiology, pain management, neurovascular surgery and nerve trauma. For example, children who have been in traumatic accidents may need to have this type of surgery.


One reason for pediatric neurosurgery would be a brain tumor. This could be cancerous or not. However, no tumor is considered normal. Getting it removed would be important for a child. The brain is still developing in childhood and a tumor could prevent proper development.

Another potential reason for neurosurgery would be spinal disorders such as spina bifida. In this condition, the spine does not properly develop. A child with this condition would likely need several surgeries. Sometimes, this surgery may be performed while the child is still in the womb. It can also be performed on newborns.